葵花法律

标题: 英文法律文书简明教程(一)缩写 [打印本页]

作者: 尼基塔女郎    时间: 2006-1-12 08:46
标题: 英文法律文书简明教程(一)缩写
一、缩写 Abbreviations4 O% o# A: h! s/ ^/ [7 s% S# _
规则1、1 `, I$ [1 i& a! P& {) L& @; f4 Y
在正式写作中,应当避免使用缩写,除非有下述规则2、规则3和规则4的情形。: b, J6 \6 K" @4 p, G) i+ U1 L
In formal writing, one should not use abbreviations, except as indicated in rules 2, 3, and 4 below.
: B4 h9 J0 S, O* G6 j4 t. {5 V' o例如: ; M, F2 b. f4 _; m9 [
Incorrect: The U.S. Supreme Court held that the defendant's rights had been violated.
) K5 W& Q# k% |! oCorrect: The United States Supreme Court held that the defendant's rights had been violated. 7 p- S' [: @' U
Incorrect: Professor Jonas mentioned several cities that have domestic-partnership ordinances, e.g., New York and San Francisco. ' E# x/ U0 T% S% Q& U9 {
Correct: Professor Jonas mentioned several cities that have domestic-partnership ordinances, including New York and San Francisco. # M  Q. }  F3 t; V  t& [3 s  m
Incorrect: The Court announced its decision in the case on Oct. 12, 1994.
) s: o0 @# C. f/ ~& ECorrect: The Court announced its decision in the case on October 12, 1994.
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规则2、
1 ~1 F, m6 G; P$ c' m- y% Z如果一个缩写的应用已经非常普遍,在一般用法中已经取代了全称,则可以使用缩写;但使用此缩写时不应该使用表示缩写的英文句号(.)。
% A! n' a* w8 U9 P  rWhen an abbreviation has become so common that it has supplanted the full name in common usage, one may use the abbreviation; however, one should do so without the use of periods.
0 T5 p$ l- ]$ l/ E例如:
4 y: [# s# w" o  [% ?Incorrect: The N.A.A.C.P. was the subject of a profile on C.B.S. last week. . `& h( S8 G: i7 {( G, R$ g# p
Correct: The NAACP was the subject of a profile on CBS last week.
1 p" L5 N, |) q' c: y$ ](注:NAACP abbr.National Association for the Advancement of Colored People (美国)全国有色人种协进会,CBS abbr. (美国)哥伦比亚广播公司(Columbia Broadcasting System))( N! ?' |# u4 c) U5 {; y' v
However: The defendant in the case is R.J. Reynolds Industries, Inc.6 d" [! `9 W" }# I; L4 v! i

4 @1 w8 T4 d& n4 e5 [请注意,在上面的例子中,字母R和J后面的句号(.)应当保留,因为这个缩写所代表的含义并非广为人知。一般来说,这样的缩写应当使用全称;但是在上面的例子中不能用全称,因为缩写R.J.是公司注册名称中使用的。
3 j3 X$ ?. |% rNotice that in the preceding example, the points after "R" and "J" should be left in, because the meaning of the abbreviation is not sufficiently well known to most readers. Ordinarily, one would replace such an abbreviation with the full terms; however, one can not do so in this case because the legal corporate name involved includes the abbreviation. * Z; A5 k: V' l; K0 ]

- C' v0 f& [9 o$ p规则3、/ q% v  ^3 `- U; o! q/ z: k
当使用legal citation时,一定要按照Bluebook(见译注)的要求来缩写。但在行文中提及法院时,不应用缩写。. z) r! h7 C5 `- N
When writing legal citations, always use the abbreviations required by the Bluebook. However, when referring to a court in text, do not abbreviate. For example:2 d0 T" w- L  ^4 S' V3 g  G7 T$ s
例如:5 b2 I8 e7 d, y: z' G+ J: Q
Incorrect: The Ill. Supreme Court required the return of the child to his birth mother. Smithson v. Bettaglia, 59 Illinois 2d 73, 180 Northeast Reporter 2d 754 (1994).
/ n! ?* l1 J9 _7 z* _# J5 lCorrect: The Illinois Supreme Court required the return of the child to his birth mother. Smithson v. Bettaglia, 59 Ill. 2d 73, 180 N.E.2d 754 (1994).
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9 U' x, b% `3 N- P& W; P4 m  y& c规则4、$ @4 k" |+ j6 C" z: S7 |5 h
当行文中涉及的公司在其注册名称中含有一个或多个缩写时,如 R.J. Reynolds Industries, Inc.,应当保留缩写;不要把缩写所代表的全称全部拼出,除非公司的注册名称中已经全部拼出,如Exxon Shipping Company。这条规则适用于所有的公司名称中,包括Co., Corp., Inc.和 Ltd.。
* I5 ~2 H. P2 A/ f- P% W5 d# bWhen referring to a corporate entity that has one or more abbreviations as part of its legal name, such as R.J. Reynolds Industries, Inc., leave the abbreviations in the name. Do not spell out the abbreviation unless the corporation itself spells it out, which some do (for example, Exxon Shipping Company). This rule applies to all of the various forms of corporate designations, including Co., Corp., Inc., and Ltd.8 F% l$ X7 ^( [& ~; P2 f4 f; ^& x
例如:# E" |! u6 t9 Q5 n
Incorrect: McDermott International, Incorporated 0 M9 Z/ h3 n; z/ v. ?4 ?
Correct: McDermott International, Inc.' w8 ]( d) h, A
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读者可到http://www.kentlaw.edu/academics ... taAbbreviations.htm阅读原文,并下载neuron软件进行练习。
) m; |6 a, C2 u参照:
+ p% `5 @, _8 e- y4 R& ^9 d4 k4 a! }Cross References: The Bluebook: A Uniform System of Citation § 6 (15th ed. 1991). $ u, E+ \; [( g' g+ I  s
译注:The Bluebook: A Uniform System of Citation ( ?; H3 T8 |9 C" Q. z% Z1 L
是Harvard Law Review联合 Columbia Law Review, the University of Pennsylvania Law Review, and the Yale Law Journal一起出版的关于如何引用法律文件和期刊的权威工具书,为法律学者和实务工作者所广泛使用。
作者: 尼基塔女郎    时间: 2006-1-12 08:48
标题: 英文法律文书简明教程(二)缩略符
缩略符-见译注
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& O3 F8 j* Y* n; g/ `# T+ z7 n- O当一个学生向教授提交书面作业或向律师事务所提交书面资料时, 没有什么比错误的使用或不使用缩略符造成的负面印象更严重了。因此,掌握这些简单,却常常容易混淆的规则非常重要。
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* N( U  S# w0 v$ c' T1 f在四种情形下使用或不使用缩略符容易引起混淆,分别是(1)复数词(2)单数所有格(3)复数所有格和(4)it's和its的缩写形式(Contractions,see cross reference hereunder)与所有格。是否使用所有格,要先问问自己是否涉及领有关系。如果是领有关系,名词或带词就要采取所有格。
6 Z/ ~9 P8 r2 Q6 @7 X1 T规则1、Plain plural words do not require the use of an apostrophe. For example:
2 U/ F; w; b; x- W" B/ R5 NIncorrect: The lawyer's could generally be found after hours at the Hanover Street Bar and Grill. (The apostrophe here incorrectly indicates a singular possessive.)
  x! W7 f" d. t6 K6 ~; KIncorrect: The lawyers' could generally be found after hours at the Hanover Street Bar and Grill. (The apostrophe here incorrectly indicates a plural possessive.)
# K- }! S. y+ S' s2 FCorrect: The lawyers could generally be found after hours at the Hanover Street Bar and Grill. (The lack of an apostrophe here correctly indicates a plural, nonpossessive term.)* O" L/ o+ A" r8 W4 }
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规则2、In singular possessive terms, place the apostrophe before the "s." This will indicate ownership by one person or thing. For example: & `8 v% S- \- W9 ^  e# D- ?, w
Incorrect: Our schools collection included an original set of Blackstone's Commentaries.
' b; A* M. ]$ c* y; m: EIncorrect: Our schools' collection included an original set of Blackstone's Commentaries. $ M( C! ]. Y1 D  H1 c
Correct: Our school's collection included an original set of Blackstone's Commentaries.
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. H1 o1 m# i( z5 G规则3、In plural possessive terms, place the apostrophe after the "s." This will indicate to the reader that more than one person or thing owns the thing possessed. 7 g0 O1 V$ n* R/ Z6 x4 X
Incorrect: The students success was largely attributable to their hard work and dedication.
: x: Z' C. L; J$ g6 Y3 _4 |) w6 j7 I$ pIncorrect: The student's success was largely attributable to their hard work and dedication. ) b+ h# ^2 `0 x8 m7 X
        Correct: The students' success was largely attributable to their hard work and dedication. 6 Z( l! p# j( l6 c! m  [
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规则4、How to distinguish "its" and "it's." " M3 t( t: [" o, \: t" k2 D/ C! o3 [
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"It's" is the contraction of "it is," as in the sentence, "It's best not to question the judge's knowledge of the laws of evidence in open court." In formal writing, however, one generally should not use contractions. Thus, the better formulation of the sentence above would be: "It is best not to question the judge's knowledge of the laws of evidence in open court." % o' z* I. }3 M7 T, V  e1 ~
"Its" is a possessive, as in the sentence, "The truck lost its muffler as it entered the pothole-laden Kennedy Expressway." This is the rare case in which a possessive term does not take an apostrophe.
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规则5、A less-often faced decision involves the use of apostrophes where multiple owners are named. Where two or more people own one item jointly, place an apostrophe before an "s" only after the second-named person. For example: - ]/ q7 K! ~  K  {3 R
Incorrect: Bill's and Mary's car was a lemon, leading them to seek rescission of their contract under the state's lemon law. 5 Y2 v. m; {1 h# ~
Correct: Bill and Mary's car was a lemon, leading them to seek rescission of their contract under the state's lemon law.
. `0 D- e! p# g# M4 X4 J# uHowever, when two or more people own two or more items separately, each individual's name should take the possessive form. For example:
! T- I4 z0 k0 W; D: |: T- s, GIncorrect: Joanne and Todd's cars were bought from the same dealer; both proved useless, even though Joanne's car was an import and Todd's was a domestic model.
# x' u/ F. l, G. _# g+ uCorrect: Joanne's and Todd's cars were bought from the same dealer; both proved useless, even though Joanne's car was an import and Todd's was a domestic model.
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* g) k' \% H- \7 g! r规则6、When creating the possessive form of words ending in "s," use only an apostrophe after the "s" if the word ends in a "z" sound. However, if the word ends in an "s" sound use an apostrophe and an additional "s" to create the possessive.
- a: ~0 [+ o" x" X7 vLess Desirable: He was a student in Professor Adams's class. + u( U0 A: J) ]% b
More Desirable: He was a student in Professor Adams' class.
* ~4 s9 r8 c2 R9 hHowever: He was a student in Professor Weiss's class.
- n. H/ k& Q3 D* B% \Cross Reference: Contractions 缩约词,通过省略或结合一个较长短语中的某些音素而形成的词,如从 will not来的 won't,或短语如从 of the clock来的 o'clock。# g( g' w) V; Z# @

0 f3 j/ t4 N7 i" T6 b7 J, D5 P译注:apostrophe; @+ M% E1 v0 e6 _- q3 b
省略符号, 撇号(')[用于 ①表示省略, 如:can't, (=can not); '88(=1988) ②表示所有格, 如 boy's; James' ③表示复数, 如two 0's, four 9's ④表示年代, 如the 1980's (读作 the nineteen eighties)20世纪80年代⑤表示一字中的某一音不发, 如: 'lectric (=electric)]. \1 p" X6 d1 ?# O
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本章节原文及练习请访问http://www.kentlaw.edu/academics/lrw/grinker/LwtaApostrophes.htm
作者: 尼基塔女郎    时间: 2006-1-12 08:50
标题: 英文法律文书教程(三)冠词
冠词3 A- B; V2 j7 z; `

: T# E' v' V4 G$ i: ^% M7 q  ~冠词指“a”,“an”,和“the”。学生常在句子中漏掉冠词,以为这样“高效”或“听起来象律师(说得话)”。但是,漏掉冠词往往写出劣质文章。需要用冠词的时候就用冠词,律师也不能例外。亚洲国家学生在写作时应注意正确使用冠词,因为许多亚洲国家语言没有冠词。3 G2 y2 |* j6 R' x2 H' V2 k1 U
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1 避免律师的习惯干扰。漏掉冠词并不能使句子更简洁,反而使句子更难懂。不要试图把句子写得“象律师写的那样”。文章最好写得正式,而不是“象律师那样”。
& H1 `5 f9 q7 N7 ]3 BIncorrect: Police officer moved evidence to avoid disappearance from crime scene. 4 o8 e. w" S3 n+ ?& J! v7 s
Correct: The police office moved the evidence to avoid its disappearance from the crime scene.
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Incorrect: Abrams, officer on duty at time of crime, testified against defendant, Joanna Stone. $ t- @; Y! u4 M- w

* `1 J* u2 d- Y# `: TCorrect: Abrams, the officer on duty at the time of the crime, testified against the defendant, Joanna Stone. # f; C7 q/ H$ V/ `  v/ ^

$ @& V% b1 J0 g2 发元音和发辅音。如何选用“a”和“an”。原则很简单:以辅音开头的名词前用a,以元音开头的名词前用“an”。在第三点中将讨论稍难些的问题-如何处理元音发音和辅音发音。6 G* q1 @: C8 s
Incorrect: The judge had an gavel, and he used it frequently.
% ?1 N9 ]/ x9 X8 `; z5 UCorrect: The judge had a gavel, and he used it frequently. 9 Q+ I' @8 o( b" M; k1 h
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Incorrect: The judge had a elephant in her courtroom, though nobody noticed.
+ l1 b0 i  O. R, kCorrect: The judge had an elephant in her courtroom, though nobody noticed.; t0 @- `. ^/ `

1 F! m* K8 {2 W- l3 元音发音开头和辅音发音开头。, }! F) n: L- ?/ l
有时一个单词以辅音开头,但听起来象以元音开头(即,发元音),这些单词在选用冠词时应被看作是以元音开头。这些单词多以“h”打头(例如hour和heir),但是如果该辅音发声(发声的辅音),就应象其它辅音一样选用冠词“a”。从而,单词“heir”以元音发音开头,单词“hotel”以辅音发音开头。
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$ e4 E' d7 P. g下面举个辅音开头发元音选用冠词的例子。
7 i, ^* S3 d3 I, \! cIncorrect: The judge gave the lawyers a hour's recess to review the new evidence. ' A% w9 h4 x4 |" g; Q
Correct: The judge gave the lawyers an hour's recess to review the new evidence.5 N! z3 k/ }0 A) o. G" m$ N
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下面举个辅音开头发辅音选用冠词的例子。) s+ P1 _: {$ f- a5 M
Incorrect: The professor was well known for posing an hypothetical question when students suggested that one rule would suffice for all situations. ! ?: V2 n) Q" C

5 f: j- x2 l1 XCorrect: The professor was well known for posing a hypothetical question when students suggested that one rule would suffice for all situations.
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  C+ g9 @# |0 z& h本章原文及练习请访问http://www.kentlaw.edu/academics/lrw/grinker/LwtaArticles.htm
作者: xhjpeter    时间: 2006-1-18 13:25
thank you !!!thanks a lot!
作者: 姜小小    时间: 2006-1-18 15:46
you are so kind !
作者: donkey    时间: 2007-1-9 14:46
谢谢!!!十分感谢!!!




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